A Minimum Wage Increase and Small Business

August 28th, 2014

© <a href="http://www.dreamstime.com/reddaxluma_info#res2965056">RedDaxLuma</a> | <a href="http://www.dreamstime.com/#res2965056">Dreamstime.com</a> - <a href="http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-monimum-wage-increase-ahead-image39252345#res2965056">Monimum Wage Increase Ahead Photo</a>The federal government raised the minimum wage that federal contractors must pay to its workers and the Administration is pushing for a national minimum wage increase to $10.10 per hour.

The Department of Labor says it will benefit 28 million workers. Opponents of the increase argue that it will hurt small business.

Where do small business owners stand?

Opinion polls
Of course, it depends who you ask. According to some polls, the majority of small business owners would support an increase:

In contrast, a CNNMoney-Manta survey found that 49% of small business owners opposed an increase. Also, some key small business organizations—NFIB and the National Small Business Association—say they’ve polled their members and found that they oppose any increase.

Reality check: Minimum wages are already higher
Regardless of what small business owners would or would not prefer, the majority of states have already increased their minimum rate to an amount higher than the current federal rate of $7.25 per hour. In 2014, the following locations have rates higher than the federal rate (amounts in parentheses are rates effective in 2015 and beyond):

  • Alaska: $7.75
  • Arizona: $7.90
  • California: $9.00 ($10 starting in 2016)
  • Connecticut: $8.70 ($9.15 in 2015; $9.60 in 2016; $10.10 in 2017)
  • Delaware: $7.75
  • D.C.: $9.50 ($10.50 in 2015; $11.50 in 2016)
  • Florida: $7.93
  • Hawaii: ($7.75 in 2015; $8.50 in 2016; $9.25 in 2017; $10.10 in 2018)
  • Illinois: $8.25
  • Maine: $7.50
  • Maryland: ($8.00 and $8.25 in 2015; $8.75 in 2016; $9.25 in 2017; $10.10 in 2018)
  • Massachusetts: $8.00 ($9 in 2015; $10 in 2016; $11 in 2017)
  • Michigan: $7.40; $8.15 on 9/1 ($8.50 in 2016; $8.90 in 2017; $9.25 in 2018)
  • Missouri: $7.50
  • Montana: $7.90
  • Nevada: $8.25
  • New Jersey: $8.25
  • New Mexico: $7.50
  • New York: $8.00 ($8.75 in 2015; $9 in 2016)
  • Ohio: $7.95
  • Oregon: $9.10
  • Rhode Island: $8 ($9 in 2015)
  • Vermont: $8.73 ($9.15 in 2015; $9.60 in 2016; $10 in 2017; $10.50 in 2018)
  • Washington: $9.32
  • West Virginia: ($8 in 2015; $8.75 in 2016)

Find more details about state minimum wage legislation from the NCSL.

Henry Ford model
In 1914, Henry Ford more than doubled the daily wage to $5 of workers in his Model T factories (he also cut the work day from 9 to 8 hours). He did this to reduce worker turnover (many could not take the monotony of the assembly line).

The increased wages actually saved the company money in rehiring and retraining costs. But many claim that there were two important byproducts of this action:

  • It created goodwill (his actions were reported worldwide)—this increased car sales.
  • It created consumers (his workers earned enough so they could afford to buy his cars).

One Forbes opinion piece says it’s “ridiculous” to apply the Ford model to the current McDonald’s controversy where workers are advocated for $15 per hour—will it enable workers to buy more burgers?

Keeping pace with inflation
If the minimum wage were adjusted annually for inflation, what would it be today? The federal $7.25 per hour rate took effect on July 24, 2009. Based on the BLS calculator, that rate would be $8.05. Clearly, any federal minimum wage increase should be tied to an inflation adjustment so the conversation on increases won’t have to be repeated every several years.

My opinion
I’m not opposed to the idea of a higher minimum wage. My issues with an increase relate to the overall struggle that small business owners face in rising prices: higher health insurance premiums, higher prices for the goods and services they use, and higher taxes. A discussion of an increase in the minimum wage should not be devoid of consideration about other additional costs faced by small business and how they can be expected to survive. A higher minimum wage only benefits a worker if there’s a job for him or her.

Small Business and Politics

August 21st, 2014

© <a href=A recent Manta survey had some interesting results about the political views of small business owners:

  • 32% believe the Republican party to be the biggest supporter of small business, but this number is down from 54% in 2012; 26% don’t believe any of the major political parties are supporters of small business
  • 81% plan to vote out sitting incumbents

Do you need to be political?
How much should small business owners be involved with politics? There’s no right answer, obviously. From my view, it depends on what’s going on locally as it impacts small business, and the level of interest in politics that owners may or may not have.

Whatever your political leaning, you may want to become involved in a race to support your candidate. Support can be financial (though no tax deduction or credit is allowed for political contributions) or via your time and effort.

The mid-term elections

November 4 is Election Day, which is less than 3 months away. On this day, all members of the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate are up for election. In addition, there are many state and local offices being filled on this day.

Here are my feelings about voting:

  • Register to vote if you haven’t already done so. This preserves your right to cast a ballot.
  • Become an educated voter. Learn about the issues that may impact you and where the candidates stand on them.
  • If you don’t vote, you don’t have a right to complain about what goes on.
  • A vote is a precious thing to waste. Don’t!

Great Advice to Run Your Business By

August 14th, 2014

I’ve been in business for a long time and over the years I’ve received wonderful advice from some respected people. I’ve followed this advice and feel better for it. I want to share some of it with you.

“Do what you can in the time you have.”

Sidney Kess, my mentor and partner for over 30 years, knows how many projects I have going all the time. Perfection isn’t an option because there just isn’t enough time. Excellence, however, can be achieved by doing my very best on each and every project.

So I complete the work in the time I have, give it my all, and don’t reproach myself that I could have done better if I’d had more time (which I didn’t).

“When something goes wrong, think of 3 good things that come out of it.”

I can’t remember who shared this wisdom with me (it was a woman on my radio show several years ago), but I’m grateful for learning it.  Here’s how it works:
A shipment that was supposed to be delivered to your customer did not arrive on time and the customer is very angry.

Three good things to come out of it:

  1. If you don’t yet have one, you can create a customer response script for your staff can to use when handling angry customers, addressing their concerns, and retaining their business and your reputation.
  2. In the future you refrain from making promises that may not be kept because of conditions beyond your control. Better way: Say you’re shipping for a particular delivery date but make sure the customer knows that things may happen to delay arrival.
  3. Take this opportunity to investigate other shippers that may have better on-time delivery rates.

“Learn a little each day.”

My first boss, Bernie Greisman, taught himself several languages by learning a word or two each day. The task of learning Latin seems daunting to me, but I witnessed that over time, any skill can be mastered by building it up gradually.

I’ve taken this to heart by spending time every day learning something new. Following this advice has helped me retain my interest and enthusiasm in what I do.

Think about advice you’ve received and pick some good ideas to follow.

Attention Franchisees: Who’s in Charge?

August 7th, 2014

The National Relations Board (NLRB) started in the Great Depression as a government board to protect the rights of employees to collectively bargain if they choose to do so. On July 29, 2014, the chief counsel of NLRB ruled that McDonald’s is a co-employer with its franchisees and, therefore can be held responsible when its franchisees violate the rights of employees who protest.

According to Joel Libava, The Franchise King® and owner of the Franchise Biz Directory, the NLRB ruling completely ignores the franchise model in which franchisees merely buy a system but own their businesses. As business owners, they have the right to hire and fire and set other HR policies (as long as they don’t violate the law).

Joel raises this question: If the NLRB ruling stands up, why would anyone want to invest thousands of dollars (more than $1 million for a McDonald’s franchise) merely to be controlled by the franchisor?

What now?

The Fast Foods Worker Committee filed NLRB claims against franchisees alleging retaliation (an unfair labor practice) for trying to organize. The NLRB’s counsel decided that a number of the claims had sufficient merit to proceed and has included McDonald’s as a co-employer in these claims.

There could be a settlement to the claims. If not, the claims will be heard by an administrative judge who will then issue a decision on whether there was retaliation. And then, if the decision is unfavorable to employers, action in the federal courts may result.

McDonald’s will fight the decision. If it wins, nothing in labor law changes. If it loses, the results are unclear.

Some possible results:

  • The franchisor could be held responsible for labor conditions at its franchisees, prompting it to institute greater control over franchisees.
  • The franchisor could increase the price of buying a franchise and the ongoing charges to franchisees to cover its new responsibilities and potential liability exposure.

My question for the NLRB: Does it not understand what franchising is all about, or does it simply not care?

Just Another Reason That It’s Time To Re-do the Tax Code

July 31st, 2014

The current version of the Internal Revenue Code is large, complex, and flawed. There have been calls on both sides of the aisle in Congress to substantially revise it, and there are several compelling reasons to do so:

  • It’s been a long time since we’ve had a new version. The time between the 1939 Code and the 1954 Code was 15 years. The time between the 1954 Code and the 1986 Code, which is the current version, was 32 years. It’s now been 28 years since enactment of the 1986, so it’s really time for a change.
  • There are many tax rules that are outdated or mean to help a specific taxpayer or industry (e.g., special write-off allowances for film and TV and motorcross arenas). Several rules were created to incentivize certain actions by individuals and businesses; they may no longer be necessary or desirable. For example, there were a slew of energy-related tax breaks (some of which expired but could be extended).

I’d like to suggest another reason for a change:

A number of rules have fixed dollar limits that have not been updated in years. (Dozens of tax rules are indexed annually for inflation, but many are not.) As a result of inflation, however modest in recent years, these fixed dollar limits are ridiculous and do not reflect Congress’ original intent. Examples:

  • The dollar limit on deducting business gifts is $25 per person per year. This limit was fixed in 1962. In today’s dollars, it would have to be $197.30 (based on the BLS inflation calculator).
  • The dollar limit on deducting capital losses in excess of capital gains (the amount that can offset ordinary income is $3,000). This limit became effective in 1978. In today’s dollars, it would be $10,966.70.
  • The dollar limit for treating losses from Sec. 1244 (small business) stock as ordinary income is $50,000, or $100,000 on a joint return. This limit became effective for stock issued after November 6, 1978. In today’s dollars, it would be $182,778.37, or 365,556.75 on a joint return.
  • The dollar limit for excluding dependent care assistance (employer paid or an employee-funded FSA) is $5,000. The limit was set in 1986. In today’s dollars, it would be $10,873.31.

It’s time to have a national discussion about what we want the Tax Code to be. (The House Ways and Means Committee started the discussion with the release of a bill entitled The Tax Reform Act of 2014, which would cut the size of the code by 25% and make other dramatic changes.)

Here are some questions I’d pose in the discussion about a new Tax Code:

  • Should it be a sure revenue raiser so the federal government has the funds to pay its bills as well as start to pay down the national debt?
  • Should it encourage certain activities by individuals and businesses (e.g., going “green;” hiring certain types of workers; purchasing capital equipment)?
  • Should it be an anti-poverty tool? (That’s what Nina Olsen, the National Taxpayer Advocate, called the earned income tax credit.)
  • Should it make U.S. corporations competitive with those in other developed countries?
  • Should it eliminate the marriage penalty entirely (so that it makes no difference taxwise whether a couple is married or not)?

I’m up for this discussion. Is Congress?

The House Gets Small Business — Where’s the Senate?

July 24th, 2014

There are only a few days left before Congress recesses to begin campaigning for the mid-term election. It won’t be back until after November 4, at which time it will be a lame duck session. In the past several weeks, the House has passed a number of rules that I view as favorable to small businesses. The Senate won’t take up the measures until after Election Day.

Here are some of the bills that have passed the House:

Permanent sales tax moratorium on Internet access. Since 1998, Congress has temporarily banned states from imposing sales tax on the Internet if it had not previously done so. Now, the House voted favorably on the Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act (H.R. 3086).

This measure would not only bar states that haven’t yet taxed access, but also eliminate sales taxes in those 7 states that did. The Senate agreed to this last year, so hopefully the law will be enacted before the end of this year.

One sticking point:  Some Senators want to expand the law to cover sales taxes on Internet sales, which would bring up a whole other issue, so passage of a permanent ban on sales taxes for Internet access isn’t certain.

Permanent research credit. First enacted in 1981 and extended 15 times, this tax break rewards companies that increase their R&D expenditures. Finally, the House voted favorably on the American Research and Competitiveness Act (H.R. 4438), which makes the credit permanent.

The White House has indicated its opposition to a permanent extension by threatening a veto; the Senate has also raised concerns about the cost of a permanent credit.

Note: In the past, the U.S. had the best tax credit in all industrialized countries, it is now ranked 27th and would move to 15th with the permanent credit.

Permanent tax breaks for buying equipment and machinery. Instead of depreciating the cost of these items over 5, 7, or longer periods, special accelerated write-offs in the tax law are designed to spur these capital investments:

  • Sec. 179 (first-year expensing) is a deduction for costs of up to set dollar limit (because of an overall annual investment limit, the rule applies only to small businesses). Last year, the deduction limit was $500,000. This year it is scheduled to be $25,000. This break entered the Tax Code through Small Business Tax Revision Act of 1958 (it was $2,000, or $4,000 for married persons each claiming a write-off), in 1981 it went to $5,000, and after 1986, $10,000. The dollar limit really started to jump beginning in 1997. You can read a complete legislative history here.
  • Bonus depreciation lets costs to be deducted in the first year up to a set percentage (over any Sec. 179 deduction). Last year, the deduction was 50% of costs; this year it is scheduled to be zero. This measure first appeared after 9-11 at 30% and has come and gone since then; it’s been as high as 100%.
  • The House voted to make the 2013 rules for both tax breaks permanent through America’s Small Business Tax Relief Act (H.R. 4457) and Act to Modify and Make Permanent Bonus Depreciation (H.R. 4718).

In my view, a permanent law is better than a temporary one. It enables businesses to plan ahead with some measure of certainty. Of course, a permanent law can always be repealed or replaced. But when laws are only temporary, businesses have to wait out Congressional bickering before knowing what the rules will be so plans can be made.

You may recall that at the end of 2013, 55 tax provisions expired. Many of these (including the research credit, the enhanced Sec. 179 deduction, and bonus depreciation) have been continually subject to extenders. Yet 2014 is more than half over and we still don’t know for certain what the tax rules for the current year will be. Is this any way to run a government?

Hobby Lobby Case and Your Small Business

July 17th, 2014

On June 30, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court announced its decision in a case brought by a company contesting the government’s rule under the Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) that it provide 20 types of contraceptives to employees despite the religious objections of its owners to 4 of these types. The company’s owners were victorious. The court said that regulations issued by the Department of Health and Human Services violate the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 (RFRA), which generally prohibits the government from substantially burdening a person’s exercise of religion.

Bottom line: The Court said that a closely-held corporation (the legal entity of the litigants Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. and Conestoga Wood Specialties Corp.), is a person for purposes of the RFRA, thus protecting, at least on this contraception issue, the religious liberty of the humans who own and control it.

Immediate impact
The decision allows owners of businesses that are not public companies to follow their conscience (there must be a “sincere” religious belief) when it comes to the contraception coverage mandate of the Affordable Care Act . The way in which a business is organized — as a sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, or corporation — does not matter.

When it comes to corporations, the government may seek to limit the application of the decision to those defined in the Internal Revenue Code as a closely-held business, which are corporations that:

  • Have more than 50% of the value of its outstanding stock owned directly or indirectly by 5 or fewer individuals at any time during the last half of the tax year, and
  • Are not personal service corporations.

Of course, the requirement to provide health coverage (“employer mandate”), and all that this entails, does not apply to most small businesses. The mandate only applies to large companies — those with 50 or more full-time and/or full-time equivalent employees. The mandate takes effect in 2015 for companies with 100 or more employees, or 2016 for companies with 50 to 99 employees. Only 2% of all small businesses have more than 50 employees.

Long-term impact
No one can say for sure what this decision will mean in the future. The decision should not be taken as a free pass for small businesses to object to all government actions or positions on a religious basis; they may not prevail as did Hobby Lobby. For example, small businesses likely won’t be able to refrain from serving gay customers on religious grounds (this issue has not come before the U.S. Supreme Court but lower courts around the country have ruled against businesses taking this stance).

On the other hand, there could be some backlash from the decision. One possible argument that can now be made by creditors is that the so-called corporate veil, which protects the personal assets of owners, is less than inviolate. The claim may seem far fetched, but the argument would be that if that veil is pierced for purposes of the Patient Protection Act, could it not also be breached for purposes of company debts?

While the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution and RFRA protect the free exercise of religion by small business owners, this protection won’t give blanket protection in all situations. Consult with an attorney when taking any position on religious grounds that runs counter to government rules.

Note: On July 17, 2014, the Department of Labor issued a ruling that any business dropping coverage for certain contraception methods must give notice to employees.

Summertime Reading

July 10th, 2014

For many people, spreading out on the beach may mean reading pulp fiction or gossip magazines and zoning out. For others, like me, it’s an opportunity to read books on business that have been waiting to be read. (I’m not making any judgments about which path is better, and maybe you can do both.)

Whether you like holding a book or an iPad (or other Kindle device), keep Benjamin Franklin’s advice in mind: “An investment in knowledge pays the best interest.”

Here is a list of books that I hope to tackle this summer (likely I won’t get to all of them despite my ambitions). Some are new publications; others have been out for some time but I haven’t read them yet.

  • Shark Tank Jump Start Your Business; How to Launch and Grow a Business from Concept to Cash by Michael Parrish DuDell. The book contains contributions from the Sharks on the ABC show: Mark Cuban, Barbara Corcoran, Lori Greiner, Robert Herjavec, Daymond John, and Kevin O’Leary.
  • The Business Book (Big Ideas Simply Explained) by DK Publishing. The book uses interesting graphics to help explain business concepts.
  • Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. This best seller explains influences on thinking.
  • The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book that Will Change the Way You Do Business by Clayton M. Christensen. The book focuses on “disruptive technology” which means new technology that changes the way things are done.
  • The Entrepreneurial Mind: 100 Essential Beliefs, Characteristics, and Habits of Elite Entrepreneurs by Kevin D. Johnson.
  • Like a Virgin: Secrets They Don’t Teach You in Business School by Richard Branson. An interesting guy should make for an interesting book.

What books are you reading, or planning to read, this summer? Please share them with me.

Summertime and Your Business

July 3rd, 2014

Now that we’re into summer, is your business ready for the season? Here are some changes you might consider at this time.

Casual dress code
Some businesses relax their dress code during the summer to allow for more casual attire. This can be a slippery slope, with some employees wearing what an owner may deem to be inappropriate attire.

If you want to change your dress code, be clear about what is and is not acceptable. Ties may become optional in the hot weather but likely flip flops are out. See the EEOC’s rules on permissible dress codes.

Summertime hours
Depending upon the nature of your business, you may need to extend your hours of operation or opt to restrict them. Be sure to well publicize any changes so customers and clients are not caught off guard.

Energy savings
Adjust thermostats and make other savvy moves to save energy costs when the temperature rises. California offers tips to businesses that can be applied to businesses nationwide, including:

  • Conduct an energy audit to find ways to save
  • Turn off lights and equipment after hours
  • Set energy-saving features on office equipment to put them into sleep mode when not in use
  • Purchase ENERGY STAR equipment

Also, be prepared for periodic brownouts by making contingency plans.

Strategic planning
If your business is slow at this time of year, it’s an opportunity to focus on long-range planning.

  • Marketing. Review and refresh your marketing activities. This will enable you to ramp up your efforts after Labor Day when people return from vacation and are ready to focus on business.
  • Taxes and finance. Meet with your CPA to review your business’ activities year-to-date and assess how things have gone. Maybe you need to make changes in your operations (e.g., cutting certain expenses; changing pricing). You can also do some mid-year tax planning.
  • Staff training. Now may be a great time to spare employees while they attend workshops or classes to learn or improve job skills.

To paraphrase George Gershwin, the living may be easy in summertime, but that’s no excuse for a business owner to take a permanent vacation at this time of the year. Use the time well to enhance your business — and enjoy!

Are You Liable for Trust Fund Penalties?

June 26th, 2014

You are if you’re an employer who willfully failed to deposit with the Treasury the required income taxes and the employee share of FICA withheld from wages.

These taxes are called trust fund taxes because you are withholding and depositing them on behalf of employees. Unfortunately, when cash is tight, some employers may use these funds to pay other bills. A report from the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration said that as of June 30, 2012, employers owed the government $14.1 billion in delinquent employment taxes.

What the report found
It criticized the government for not taking sufficient collection action in trust fund recovery penalty (TFRP) cases. For example, the IRS often failed to initiate collections before the statute of limitations on collections expired. But even if the collection period was still open, by delaying collections, the financial ability to pay had declined. While only a small sample of employers was used, the report found that the untimely actions averaged more than 500 days to review and process.

The report recommended that the IRS should:

  • Ensure that revenue officers take timely action for TFRP cases
  • Enhance communications and training for TFRP cases
  • Improve the IRS scheduling system so collections cases aren’t barred by the statute of limitations

The report contained a memorandum sent to the IRS commissioner of the Small Business/Self-Employed Division. It acknowledged that the division has made some improvements in timeliness since the Government Accountability Office’s recommendations made in 2008 along similar lines.

When employers are personally liable
Regardless of the entity used for your business, you are personally liable for a 100% TFRP if you are a “responsible person” who willfully fails to deposit the trust fund taxes within the meaning of the tax law. Thus, even if you own a corporation or limited liability company, you are personally at risk for this penalty if you are an owner who is aware that the taxes haven’t been deposited and who has authority over which bills get paid (e.g., ability to sign checks, review payments).

If there is more than one “responsible person,” the IRS is free to go after any such individual for the entire penalty. Then the person who pays the taxes can seek “contribution” (the pro rata share) from co-owners (the responsible person can ask his/her co-owners for their share but likely a lawsuit is needed).

What to do
In light of the Inspector General’s report and the huge amount of revenue at stake, small business owners can expect that the IRS’ SB/SE Division will be more attuned to uncollected trust fund taxes. To avoid exposure to this personal penalty, be sure that your business implements strategies to pay this tax obligation, including:

  • Regular monitoring of deposits with the Treasury for trust fund taxes
  • Using cash flow strategies so as not to fall short of the funds needed to make the tax deposits
  • Working with tax advisors to ensure that payroll taxes are properly computed and deposited according to the applicable deposit schedule